Activities to Building Fluency

1. Echo Reading

Students need to hear the model of a fluent reader in order to improve their oral reading fluency. The goal of Echo Reading is to help students increase fluency.

Steps: 1. You read the first line of the text orally, accentuating appropriate phrasing and intonation. If the student is unable to read a full line of material, experimentation should determine the appropriate amount of reading with which he/she is comfortable. For example, the student might need to start by hearing and reading prepositional phrases and gradually increasing to hearing and reading complete sentences. 2. Have the student read the same line immediately, following the reader's example. 3. The reader and the student read in echo fashion for the entire passage, increasing the amount of text that the student can imitate and model.

2. Repeated Reading

Students might benefit from working on fluency through Repeated Readings, with charting of their progress on rate and word recognition. To use the Repeated Readings technique, the student should be timed reading a short passage (possibly from a book or dictated story). Record his/her time, while an adult records miscues. These miscues should be brought to his/her attention before rereading the passage. Then, the student should set a goal. Initially, a goal of no more than 3 seconds faster than the first time should be set. Then, reread the same passage again and compare the first and second times. Then, the student should repeat the process a third time. Hopefully, fluency rates should improve using this method. The student should then proceed to the next passage in the book or to a different passage.

3. Take a Bow

Teacher chooses a piece of literature with lots of dialogue, interesting characters, and rich language. Folk tales and basal readers are especially good sources. Copies of the story should be available for all students. The teachers assigns parts for each student; then the students highlight their parts (what they will read aloud.)This will actively involve all students as they build fluent reading.